From Northwestern University Center for Atom-Probe Tomography
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Heterogeneos nucleation of Cu precipitates on a grain boundary

This LEAP tomography data set is from a blast resistant steel which has been aged at 550°C and 450°C. Nanosize Cu precipitates are one of the major contributors to the strength of the steel, and as such it is important to understand their nucleation, growth, and coarsening behavior. Heterogeneous nucleation, which is seen here along a grain boundary, changes the behavior from what would be predicted by models for purely homogeneous nucleation. The red represents a 5 at% Cu isoconcentration surface.(Courtesy: Mike Mulholland)